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What is Immune System ,Types and Parts of Immune System ?


*What is Immune System?

Types and Parts of Immune System*

*What is Immune System?*

Immune system is a system which protects humans from infection of different kinds of diseases. It is like police system of the body to protect human from pathogens. It protects human from bacteria, viruses and other variety of pathogens.

*Types of Immune System*

Every organisms have two systems innate immune system and adopted immune system. The Innate immune system has provided preconfigured response to to situations and stimuli. The adopted immune system has provided a tailored response to stimuli through learning and recognizing pathogens. Both immune system has required to molecules and cells to defense the body.

*Parts of Immune System*


Antibodies has helped the body to fight microbes or the toxins (poisons) they produce. Antibodies donethis by identifying substances called antigens on the surface of the microbe, or in the chemicals that they produce; that mark the microbe or toxin as being foreign. The antibodies after recognition mark these antigens for breakage. There include proteins, many cells, and chemicals which are involved in this attack.

*White blood cells*

White blood cells are the main players in humans immune system. They are produced in bone marrow and become part of the lymphatic system.White blood cells circulate through blood and tissue throughout humans body. Always search for foreign invaders (microbes) like viruses, bacterias, fungi and parasite. When white blood cells have found them; launch an immune attack.White blood cells has included lymphocytes like B-cells, natural killer cells and T-cells ; many different types of immune cells. *Complement system* This system is made of proteins which actions complement the work done by antibodies.

*Lymphatic system*

The lymphatic system has a network of delicate tubes throughout the body. The main roles isDeal with cancer cellsManage the fluid levelsReacted to bacteriaDeal with cell products that would result in disease or disordersAbsorb some of the fats in diet from the intestine.

*The lymphatic System has Made:*

Lymph nodes or lymph glands (which trap microbes)Lymph vessels; tubes which carry lymph and the colourless fluid that bathes body’s tissues and has carried infection fighting white blood cells (lymphocytes).

*Bone marrow*

Bone marrow; the spongy tissue finds inside humans bones. It has producedthe red blood cells of humans bodies that need to carry oxygen, and the white blood cells humans bodies use to fight infection, and the platelets human bodies need to help blood clot.


The spleen is a blood-filtering organ that removes microbes and destroys old or damaged red blood cells. It also makes disease-fighting components of the immune system (including antibodies and lymphocytes).


It filters and monitors humans body blood content; produces the white blood cells that called T-lymphocytes. The body has other defences against microbes; as well as the immune system. *The body has several other ways to defend against microbes which are;*


(a waterproof barrier) secretes oil which has ability to kill bacteria properties.


(mucous in the lungs or phlegm) which traps foreign particles; small hairs (cilia) wave the mucous upwards so it can caught out.

*Digestive tract* :

the mucous lining contains antibodies; the acid in the stomach has ability to kill most microbes.

*Other Defences*

Body fluids such as skin oil, saliva and tears have anti-bacterial enzymes which help to reduce the risk of infection; flushing of the urinary tract, and the bowel also helps.

AIDS is Deadly Disease (HIV infection), Symptoms and Causes

*AIDS is Deadly Disease (HIV infection), Symptoms and Causes* The world has confronting many diseases some are more serious and others are less. Diseases effects human and animals species; those who have ability to service and adopt in new environment can win the game of life. AIDS is one of the disease which impacts human generations and it is hard to servive with the disease.

Nothing is more harmful than AIDS, because it directly effect human immune system. *Background* The infection of HIV come from a type of chimpanzee in Central Africa to Human. Studies has showed that HIV might has jumped from chimpanzees to humans as far back as the late 1800s.The chimpanzee virus is called simian immunodeficiency virus.

It is may passed to humans when humans try to hunt these chimpanzees for meat; comes in contact with their infected blood.Over many decades, HIV gradually spreads across Africa and later into other parts of the world. The virus has effected the United States since at least the mid to late 1970s.


AIDS is ‘Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome’ that cause by HIV ‘Human Immunodeficiency Virus’. HIV effects human immune system, and it is a viral disease. An Infected person is unable to fight with infections; AIDS is its advanced stage. If a HIV infected person is not treated than it leads the person toward AIDS. There is no cure for HIV infected person; disease remains with the patient through out life. There is proper medical care for HIV control to transmit another person or partner. Effected patients live healthy and long life to protect their generations.


Some people have flu like symptoms and other are not. Flu for weeks or several days, but it is not confirm that every flu person has HIV infected. The only way to know about HIV infection is test from valid medical laboratory.

*These are common symptoms of HIV* HeadacheSwollen lymph glands, mainly on the neckRashDiarrheaCoughFeverWeight lossNight sweatsMuscle aches and joint pain *Causes* AIDS is sexually transmitted disease; spread through sex with multiple partners.

It is transferred from a mother to a child, blood of infected person. It is also transferred through illicit infection drug, and injections. It is a viral disease which has no cure, but it can controlled with proper medication. *Impact* All the world is in impact of HIV and these are areas which effected by AIDS through out the world.

*Health* : fear of servival.

*Economy* : reduce human capital.

*Population* : many people died every year. *Society* : it is disease which not only effects an individual, but whole family and society. *Progress* : every nation builders are human, but lack of health decline the progress of the nations.


AIDS is deadly Disease, an advance form of HIV. It is a viral disease which transferred from chimpanzee to human in central Africa; directly effects human immune system. There is no cure for this disease, only proper medical care prevent it from spreading.

It has symptoms headache, fever, cough, weight loss, muscle and joint pain, rash and diarrhea etc. It is caused due to multiple sexual partners, through needles, mother to child and illicit drug infection. It impacts on human health, economy, population, society and progress.

Medical Board and Dental Council of Pakistan


*Medical Board and Dental Council of Pakistan* *Background* The Pakistan Medical Council has established in 1948 through adopting the British Indian Medical Council Act 1933 on the recommendations of the 1947 Pakistan Health Conference. It is later anew council under the Pakistan Medical Council Act 1951 whereby each province has its own medical council. In 1957, the West Pakistan Medical Council has formed by combining the Sindh Medical Council and the Punjab Medical Council. The Pakistan Medical Council Ordinance 1962 has established the present-day Pakistan Medical and Dental Council as a statutory body in 1962. All provincial councils are dissolved. Three amendments have passed thereafter as the Medical and Dental Council Act in 1973 (1999 and 2012). In 2019, President Arif Alvi has passed a Law; has dissolved the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PM&DC) in ordee to create a new council which named as Pakistan Medical Council (PMC). However, after 3 years in 2022, The Islamabad High Court has restored the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PM&DC); has declared the formation of Pakistan Medical Commission (PMC, a body formed through a presidential ordinance in its place). *Introduction* Medical and Dental Council is a authority which maintenance registration of official practitioners in Pakistan. It provides standard qualification in Pakistan regions; also set standard education for medical colleges and higher commission. It has very old history, form in 1962 means 61 year ago from today date. The president of this council is Prof. Dr. Rizwan Taj; contains 232 employees and formally called PMC (Pakistan Medical Commission). *Registry* All medical and dental practitioners have required to register in the Pakistan medical and dental council. The students are also required to register with the commission to legally practice medicine and dentistry in Pakistan with legally prove. The guidelines for registration are given in Chapter IX, Pakistan Registration of Medical and Dental Practitioners Regulations (2008). *Dispersion and* *Regeneration* In 2019, the PMDC has dissolved; replaced by the Pakistan Medical Commission (PMC). President Arif Alvi’s signing of the Pakistan Medical Commission Ordinance 2019. The move has done to regulate and control the medical profession in Pakistan. The aim is to establish uniform standards of medical training, education, and recognition of qualifications in medicine and dentistry. This occur, it has argued; PMDC has to be dissolved in order to properly implement the new ordinance. PMDC offices are temporarily sealed to ensure the protection of essential records and assets. The new PMC will consist of the existing Medical and Dental Council, the National Medical and Dental Academic Board, and the National Medical Authority, which will act as a Secretariat of the Commission.On February 11, 2020, the Islamabad High Court has abated the Pakistan Medical Commission Ordinance and has restored PMDC.On September 16, 2020; PMDC are dissolved again by a joint session of the Senate and Parliament by passing the bill to replace PMDC with PMC to assure standard medical education in Pakistan.On August 23, 2022; The Senate Standing Committee on Health on Tuesday has approved the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council Amendment Bill (2022); with a majority vote, after which the legal status of the PMC ceases to exist. On January 12th, 2023, The President of Pakistan has given final approval to the PMDC Bill 2022 after which the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council have established. *Functions* To set a standard of education of all medical colleges.To register dental and medical institutes and regulate medical and dental practices.To give license and check standard of medical and dental institutes.It is also maintenance highest standard of ethical and professional conduct. *Critique* Sundary corruption accusations and disgraces have been associated with the previous council (PMC). Irregularities in the registration of medical and dental colleges; allegations of wrong practices in the attribution of doctors has also leveled in judicial researches of the council’s affairs. A judicial commission is set up under a court order after accusations of misappropriation in the registration of private medical and dental colleges have surfaced in 2013. The commission is headed by the former Lahore High Court judge Shabbar Raza Rizvi.Representatives of different medical organizations express their concerns regarding PMC that it may give autonomy to private medical colleges for fixing their fees, thus increasing the burden on students. *Conclusion* There is long history of Pakistan medical and dental council. It is only institute which play role in health and medical colleges of Pakistan. Every province has its own council, but they have provided same syllabus and education. For medical students, staffs and other related to medical field have to legally approve from this council in order to practice their respected duties. Despite council work, it is dissolve and restore after few times. There are many accusations of corruption in tests of medical colleges and other issues against Pakistan medical and dental council.

Nts vacinator shortlisted results announced


Hello guys welcome my website firstly congratulations to those candidates who are shortlisted in nts vacinator results announced by vacinator department. Now you candidates check your results on nts website so you can visit nts website for your results. I share with you nts shortlisted list on my website so you can easily find your status and results of the shortlisted and those candidates who scored below 50 they are not shortlisted in nts results and those who are secure 50+ marks they are shortlisted means they are eligible for further procedure so follow us for upcoming details and visit nts.gov. pk website search on Google . thanks

Artificial intelligence


Artificial Intelligence IntelligenceThe simplest human behaviour is imputed intelligence, but the most complicated insect behaviour is not taken as intelligence. The behaviour of the digger wasp, Sphex ichneumoneus, when the female wasp has returned to her burrow with food. She first deposits it on the threshold and checks for intruders inside her burrow, then, when the coast is clear; she carries her food inside.Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence is burning topic for everyone. It is also popular topic of discussion in future as well; it may be popular through out centuries. The term artificial intelligence refers to machine ability to do task like human intelligence like solving problem and learning. Artificial intelligence includes applications such as web search engines (Google Search), systems (YouTube, Amazon, and Netflix), human speech translation such as Siri and Alexa, self-driving cars (Waymo), creative tools (ChatGPT and AI art), and strategic games (chess and Go).It origins in 1956, get some disappointment, but after 2012 funds increase for it. It has traditional goals such as perception, planning, learning, reasoning, knowledge and robotics. AI has ability to solve problem related to science, economy, daily life and languages.AI is used in information learning, and its systems use for advance technology. Its systems are known as expert systems. Computers are used to know human intelligence and development. AI tools has helped human in every field and with help of AI human gain technological power and are connected to each other.

Live Worm Found in Woman’s Brain Instead of Tumor


Live Worm Found in Woman’s Brain Instead of Tumor In Australia, a brain doctor surprises during operation. Hari Priya Bandi founds a living worm in a patient’s brain. In Canberra Hospital in 2022, she performed operation and she mention it in a study with Dr. Sanjaya Senanayake in Emerging Infectious Diseases.

In the study, it is clear that roundworm native of Australia which is eight centimeters long. Before the operation, it is unclear that roundworm will effect human. It is found in carpet pythons (A kind of large snakes found in Pacific islands and Australia). The patient in 2022 has diagnosed with depression and forgetfulness. Her brain image changes in few months; roundworm is not expected in her brain, but the doctor expect a tumor.

Every doctor in the operation theater has stunned to see worm instead of tumor.After operation, the doctor says that the patient does not say about any problem, some problems remove, but other still present. The doctor becomes happy to solve the patient problem and all doctors give her medicines and looking her health.It is not clear that where the worm goes in her brain. Doctors believe that she lives close pythons area; may she eats eggs of worms.

Business Through Brazil’s Amazon


Business Through Brazil’s Amazon Amazon in Brazil is used for business. Many companies use it for different material, nuts and fruits. In these days, there is thought to increase it, and a specific term is used for it “bioeconomy”.Marcelo Salazar which has a drink company named Mazo Mana Forest Food. They get help form local in partnership to gather different kind of fruits for drinks. For financial support, they get help from an investment group in Manaus, Brazil.

There is hope that bioeconomy promotes economy which is based on ranching and forestry.Leaders from Amazon also support it. Make policies to protect rainforest, and Salazar is team chosen under the ministry of environment which talks about this subject. This idea is used as green economy in past.Brazil nuts and acai harvesters; people also chocolate form coca. There is also the world’s largest fishery.

People also gather rubber to produce shoes; Helder Barbalho’s state (He is the governor of Para state) believe that only Brazil has complete bioeconomy plan. Para is large producer of acai. Its economy depends on iron export to China; 27 million form cows use large land. There are more greenhouse gases than other state of Brazil.Natura is skin products company, twenty year ago it begins to production by using ingredients from family forms and Amazon communities. Ucuuba trees is used to produce brooms; later company knows about it. When local people use it and increases earning and sell seeds of Natura. It conserves more than 2 million hectares of the forest.

Natura has brought goods of 41 communities. Which are home to 9,120 families and they have received $9 million. Para state has planned the bioeconomy names of 43 forest products that are able for export such as cassava, acai, fish species, cocoa, pepper and essential oils which are for skin products.The neighbor Amazonas state creates a bioeconomy plan with financial support from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Although, some earlier efforts have revealed problems.

A state of condom factory in the Amazon city of Xapuri opens in 2008. It has supposed to provide the market which is helpful for hundreds of rubber-gathering families. Although, the factory has closed 10 years later; when federal funding comes to an end. Local people have resorted to cattle ranching; nowadays the area has ranked high for deforestation.

Cocoa beans are also in problems. The trees are able for a way to let forest growing back where it cuts down once or multiple times. Although, its appeals to many places such as the Ivory Coast and Ghana meant massive deforestation to made way for trees which earn more money.Salazar (head of Mazo Mana) has vision that his company is as both social-minded and good for the economy.

It has kept nearly 10 percent money for the partner community associations. Salazar has thought to the sustainable companies which get success; grow big and will be those who have a mission to solve problems of Amazon. He has said that those companies would drive an economy which is the value of the forest.

A Tool to mark identity on images of Artificial intelligence technology (AI)


A Tool to mark identity on images of AI (Artificial intelligence technology) Google launches a tool which mark identity on images which are created with the help of artificial intelligence technology. Online an advertising company and the American based search engine announce new tool in statement (Tuesday).

Google made it limited for testers and in future its use will increase.Google deep mind has developed the tool which called SynthID; with the partnership with Google Research. SynthID works with Google’s AI image creator Imagen. This system has created full film quality image from single command.

Imagen user will use with AI identifying tool.SynthID creates hidden and digital watermarks on images. It is used in documents and money to make them as real. Those documents will check with light that which have watermarks for checking authentication.

This is same case with digital watermarks, but those use in technology to digitally embed hidden markers. It is not easy to see them, although tools are used to identify them.Those marks help to identify images that are made by AI or not. It also help to identify real or false images which published online.

Experts have identify two major problem with AI tools; they creat misinformation and violet copyright. Google parents alphabet with other companies to establish watermarks to safe AI technology. Those companies like Facebook parents meta, Microsoft, OpentAI and Online seller Amazon have made agreement U.S presedent Joe Bidenat the White House. They promise to safe use of watermarks in video, images, text and audio.The tool help to connect people and give authentic information.

It creates trust between user and creator. Watermarks are at place when image change itself it is not big issue and used to resize picture or color it.Hidden marks are add to AI image. Google has continued activity test watermarks and user experience in beta testers. Companies are trying to spread it on other side of Google to make it available for everyone.SynthID and Google launch AI tools design in business for structural improvement to computing system.

Systems produce large language modals and AI tools. Google makes a new version of self-designed Al computing chips. The new chip TPU v5e builds to train large computer modals and serve those modals. Google has also released new security tools and software to work with AI technology.