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ALLOYS Objectives MCQS

  Bronze is the mixture of Copper and tin.
  Brass is an alloy of Copper and Zinc
  Bronze is an alloy of copper and Tin
  Stainless steel is an alloy of carbon +Iron with Chromium and Nickel
  German silver is an alloy of copper with nickel and zinc
  Solder is an alloy of lead and tin
  Dental amalgam = mercury +silver, Tin, Zinc, Copper
  Duralumin = aluminium + copper + magnesium
  Pewter is an ancient alloy made of tin and lead
  Aluminum is used mostly in aircrafts
  Camphor exhibits the property of sublimation.
  The alloy which consists of copper and tin.Bronze
  Excessive use of fertilizers causes death of pants due to exomosis.
  Stainless steel => Carbon + Iron + Chromium + Nickel.
  Bronze does not rust.
  Dental Amalgem => mercury + Silver, Tin, Zinc, Copper.
  Duralumin => aluminum+Copper+magnesium.
  Brass => Copper + Zinc.
  Pewter => an ancient alloy made up to tin and lead.
  Aluminum is used mostly in aircrafts.
  Australia has the largest bauxite deposits.
  Aluminum metal is obtained from aluminia by electrolysis – passing electricity through it. This process was discovered independently in 1886 by Charles Hall in the USA and Paul Heroult in France.
  Asbestos does not burn and it is a mineral fiber
  Amalgam is a mixture of metal and mercury
  Nickel is used as a catalyst while manufacturing ghee
  After persistent decay, radium would be finally changed into Lead.
  Mercury is a liquid with greatest density
  Noble metal are non-reactive metals example Gold, Silver and Platinum
  Mica is an excellent insulator
  Purest form of iron is wrought iron
  Cast iron has highest carbon content
  Sodium, potassium and magnesium are reactive metals
  Sodium burns in water not in kerosene
  Conductivity level___1)silver, 2)copper, 3)aluminum, 4)iron
  PVC = Ployvenyl Chloride
  First synthetic materials was Celluloid in 1868
  Second synthetic material by Bakelite invented by Leo Hendricks Backland
  Largely limestone is used in the production of cement
  Granite can be found in igneous rocks.
  Coal and petroleum are found in Sedimentary rocks
  Gold and copper are mostly found in old Igneous rocks
  Magnesium is abundant in sea
  Sources of uranium in Pakistan is Dera Ghazi Khan
  What type of acid is used in car batteries Sulphuric
  Copper can be converted into gold by: Artificial radioactivity
  Tungsten has the highest melting point = 3410 deg: C
  The coil used in a heater is made of Nichron

  Common Salt is NaCl = sodium chloride
  Chun is Ca(OH)2 = calcium hydroxide
  Washing soda = Na2CO3= sodium carbonate
  Baking soda = NaHCO3 = sodium bicarbonate
  Chalk = CaCO3 = calcium carbonate
  Plaster of Paris = CaSO4.1/2 H2O
  Gypsum salt is CaSo4 + 2H2O.
  Cholestrol = C27 H46O
  Carbohydrates = C+O+H
  Protein = C+Nitrogen + O+H
  C2 H5 OH is the formula of what- Alcohol
  H14 N2 is a poisonous alkaloid consumed daily by millions what-Nicotine
  What element was named after the Greek word for green-Chlorine
  What elements name comes from the Greek for light bearing-Phosphorous
  Alphabetically what is the first element in the periodic table-Actinium
  What elements name comes from the Greek word for violet-Iodine
  Mercury is also known as Quick Silver
  Coal is also known as Black Diamond
  The lightest known metal is Lithium
  The oil used to preserve timber is Creosote oil
  Lime stone is predominantly used raw material in the production of cement.
  An element found in all organic compounds is carbon
  Most commonly used bleaching agent is chlorine
  Lime is sometimes applied to soil in order to increase the alkalinity of the soil
  Podsols are Acidic soils
  Source of plaster of Paris is gypsum
  Chemical name of plaster of Paris is Hemihydrates
  Naturally occurring elements are 92
  Total elements are 109
  Alkaline soil is treated with gypsum
  Marble is metamorphic rock
  Limestone is sedimentary rock
  Limestone transforms into marble
  Thorium is both magnetic and radioactive
  Finest quality of pottery is procelin. It is make from the purest white clay such as kaolin also called China clay and heated at 1400 deg: C
  Bone china is an imitation porcelain made using clay mixed with bone ash
  Mud bricks are called adobe
  Materials that resist high temperatures are known as refectories
  Refectories contin tungsten, the metal with highest melting point (3410 deg: C).
  Some refectories contain tungsten carbide which is used to make cutting tools that remain sharp even when they get red hot
  Rungsten and titanium carbides are mixed with ceramics to form cerment which are used in high temperature parts of jet and rocket engines
  Cement is a ceramic product made of fiercely haeating (1500 deg: C) earthly material like limestone and clay
  Concrete is strong under compression but weak if streatched (tension). For this engineers cast steel rods into the concrete. This is called reinforced concrete.
  Ceramic is made by heating and mixing together the ceramic material boron carbide and aluminium. It is lighter than aluminum and stronger than steel

  Sodium carbonate is used in making glass and in caustic soda for making soap
  Sulphuric acid is also known as “lifeblood of industry”
  Oxidation is addition of oxygen to the substance
  Hydrogenation is adding hydrogen
  Hydrogen is the commonest element in the universe.
  Hydrogen is a powerful fuel. The main engines of the space shuttle are powered by hydrogen.
  Hydrogen is used in fertilizers, margarine and plastics.
  Serenium is non metal substance.
  ‘Ion exchange’ is the method to remove the temporary or permanent hardness of water.
  Molasses (Gur) are a by product of sugar industry.
  Polymerization is the reaction by which plastics are made. It involves linking together of small molecules (manomers) to form large ones (polymers)
  Halogens mean salt like. It is a group of highly reactive nonmetals that are poisonous in their pure forms. Other halogens are fluorine, bromine, iodine, astatine.
  Salt is one of the halogens
  Halogens light bulbs used in cars’ headlamps (ususlly iodine or bromine) surrounding the light filament. Halogen bulbs are brighter and last longer than ordinary light bulbs.
  Fluoride compounds in toothpaste and drinking water help to prevent tooth decay.
  Chlorine reacts with other elements and form PVC, a plastic for pipes and waterproof fabrics.
  Iodine sublimes at room temperature (i.e turns directly into a gas)
  Chlorine is used in swimming pools to kill germs.
  Palladium metal is used in air craft
  Liquid sodium is used a coolant in nuclear reactor
  Plutonium-239 is a good nuclear fuel
  Aviation fuel for jet aeroplanes consists of purified kerosene
  Co2 is used in fir extinguishers
  Cooking gas is oxygen+methane
  Hydrogen has the highest fuel value
  Ripening of fruits is hastened by Ethylene gas
  Iron rusts due to formation of a mixture of ferrous and ferric hydroxide
  Chemically soap is a salt
  Dalton’s atomic theory gave the concept of Valency
  When radioactive rays are passed through air or any gas , they cause it to ionize
  Formic acid is present in sour milk
  Butane gas is used in cigarette lighters
  LPG contains Butane and propane
  In soft drinks Co2 is used
  Rust stains on cloth is revoved by Oxalic Acid solution
  Acid in lemon and grape fruit is Citric Acid
  Permanent magnets are make from Ferromagnetic substances
  Melting point of Tungsten is 3000 deg: C
  Mercury is used as a solvent in refining silver
  Serenium is non metal substance.
  Aqua Regia is the mixture of Nitric Acid and HCL in 1:3.
  Sodium Benzoate is used to preserve food articles.
  Gas used for purification of water is chlorine
  Formic Acid is used in dying, tanning and electroplating.
  In galvanization iron sheet is coated with Zinc
  Mahalanobis model laid great emphasis on development of heavy industries.
  Oxidation is the process in which electron is lost.

  Camphor exhibits the property of sublimation.
  Gypsum salt is CaSo4 + 2H2O.
  Excessive use of fertilizers causes death of plants due to exomosis.
  Sodium Benzoate is used to preserve food articles.
  Bee stings contain formic acid
  BHCC Benzene Hex chloride is used for killing for insects.
  Opposite of acid is alkali
  Pure water has pH of 7
  pH scale ranges from 0-14
  Cola drinks contain phosphoric acid to give them flavor
  People used to treat bee stings by rubbing them with bicarbonate of soda
  Acid contains hydrogen and react with metals such as iron and zinc, they give off hydrogen
  Acid turns litmus paper red
  Alkali turns litmus paper blue
  Alkalis are part of a group of chemicals called bases.
  Alkalis are bases that dissolve in water, have bitter taste and feel soapy
  When an acid meets an alkali both are changed- they are neutralized.
  When acid meets alkali salt and water is produced
  Stomach produces hydrochloric acid
  Strong acids like sulphuric acid is usesd in factories to make fertilizers, explosives, plastics, synthetic fabrics, paints, dyes, medicines, detergents and other chemicals
  Example of strong alkali is Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda)
  Sodium hydroxide solution dissolves fats and used to clean oven and drain blocked cleaners
  In industry alkalis are used in the manufacture of soap, glass, paper and textile and in the refining of crude oil
  Aluminum metal is obtained from aluminia by electrolysis. This process was discovered by
Charles Hall of US in 1886 and Paul Heroult in France
  Use of Boron and Zink can improve cotton yield
  ‘Ion exchange’ is the method to remove the temporary or permanent hardness of water.
  An example of inorganic compound is carbon monoxide
  Shoot is an example of amorphous carbon
  Different forms of same elements are called allotropes
  Diamond is allotropic form of carbon
  Graphite is used to hold molten metals
  Charcoad is used in gas masks for absorbing unpleasant smells
  Fullerences are the most recently discovered allotropes
  The main ingredient in glass making is sand, the mineral is silical.
  The ordinary glass used for bottles and windows is known as soda lime glass as it is made by using soda ash and limestone.
  Adding lead oxide in glass making recipe makes crystal glass which has extra brilliance and sparkles like a diamond.
  Glass with a very high lead content is made for the nuclear industry because it blocks harmful radiations.
  Boron is added to glass making recipe to protect glass from expanding and cracking when heated.
  Borosilicate glass is used to make heat resistant cookware and laboratory equipments.
  Glues comes from animals by boiling bones and skin of cattle and fish bones
  Gums come from the sticky resins make by certain plants.
  Most adhesives used today are synthetic and are usually made from petroleum chemicals.
  Among the strongest adhesives are the epoxy resins

  Gold is the most malleable metal of all
  Silver is used today in photography because many silver salts darken when they are exposed to light.
  Platinum is used in industry as a catalyst.
  Rubies and sapphires are made mostly of a material called alumina, but rubies are red beacuase they contain tiny amount of chromium and sapphires are ususlly blue as these cotain timy amounts of iron
  Driest deserts on earth are the cold, dry valley of Antarctica
  Detergents are synthetic products made from petroleum chemicals
  Soap is made by heating fat or oil with alkali like caustic soda. A product we get from making of soap is glycerine which is used in making plastics and explosives.
  Pure iron is quite a weak metal but if carbon is added to it, it becomes both strong and hard
  Iron bricks are called steel ingot
  Iron is not found in metal form but extracted from iron ore by smelting ie heating at high temp:
  90 elements exist naturally and 25 artificially
  At room temperature most elements are solids but a number are gases like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and neon and only two are liquids like mercury and bromine.
  Gold rarely combine with other metals and fluorine is highly reactive
  Diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon
  Hjeating coal without air produce coke which is used to make steel
  Bitumen (damber) is used for surfacing roads comes from coal
  Isotopes are same chemicals but with different physical properties
  Aircrafts are made of aluminum alloys.
  Chemical used in bettery cells is electrolyte
  Sulphuric acid is used in batteries as electrolyte
  In alkalin battery Anode = Zinc powder mixed with electrolyte and Cathode = manganese compound mixed with electrolyte
  Anode = negative terminal and Cathode = positive terminal
  Votalic Pile was the first battery made in 1799
  Fuel cells make electricity using hydrogen as a fuel
  Almost all explosives contain nitrogen. Nitrogen compound Ammonia is the starting point of several explosives.
  Calcium is a metal found in chalk, limestone and marble in the form of Calcium Carbonate
  Beryllium is used to make cutting tools where it is important to avoid spark
  Minerals containing beryllium don’t show up on x-rays, and are used for the windows of
x-ray machines
  Magnesium is present in chlorophyll
  Sulphur dioxide is not an odorless gas
  Glass is soluble in Aqua Reggie
  Fuel in an automobile is a mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
  Power of alcohol is methyl and petrol
  Lead is used in batteries
  The odour of garlic is due to a Sulphuric compound
  Cabbage contains sulphur
  The strongest known acid is an 80% solution of antimony pentafluoride in hydrofluoriv acid.
  Saffron is used to color fabrics. Cochineal red is a dye extracted from insects.
  Crude oil and natural gas are made mostly from hydrocarbons. When they burn CO2 is released into atmosphere
  Synthetic fibers are mostly plastics make from petroleum chemicals.

  Lime is sometimes applied to soil in order to increase the alkalinity of the soil
  BHCC Benzene Hex chloride is used for killing for insects.
  Opposite of acit is alkali.
  Pure water has 7 P.H.
  Cola drinks contain phosphoric acid to give them flavor.
  Bee stings contain formic acid.
  People used to treat bee stings by rubbing them with bicarbonate of soda.
  Acid contains Hydrogen and reacts with metals such as iron and zinc, they give off
  Acid turns litmus paper red.
  Alkalis are part of a group of chemicals called bases. Alkalis are bases that dissolve in water, have bitter taste and feel soapy.
  Alkali turns litmus paper blue.
  Stomach produces hydrochloric acid
  Backing powder => Bicarbonate of Soda -> an alkali
  Strong acids like sulphuric acid used in factories to make fertilizers, explosive, plastics, synthetic fabrics, paint, dyes, medicines, detergents, and many other chemicals.
  Strong alkalis => Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda).
  Sodium Hydroxide solution dissolves fats used as oven and drain blocked cleaners.
  In industry, alkalis are used in the manufacture of soap, glass, paper and textile, and in the refining of crude oil.
  Chemical in cell of battery is called electrolyte.
  Lead metals are used in batteries.
  A personal stereo used alkaline battery. In this the electrodes are powders, mixed with an electrolyte to make a paste.
  Sulphuric acid is used in batteries are electrolyte.
  In alkalin battery:-
o Anode = Zinc powder mixed with electrolyte.
o Cathode= Manganese compound mixed with electrolyte.
  Anode = Negative Terminal
  + Cathode= Positive Terminal
  Votalic pile was the first battery in 1799.
  Fuel cells make electricity using hydrogen as a fuel.
  Carbon is the element of life.
  Shoot is an example of amorphous carbon.
  Different form of the same elements are called allotropes.
  Diamond is allotropic from of carbon.
  Graphite is used to hold molten metals.
  Charcoal is used in gas masks for absorbing unpleasant smells.
  Fullerenes are the most recently discovered allotropes.
  Carbon dioxide we release is comes from food we eat.
  Carbohydrates = C+O+H
  Protein = Nitrogen + O + H
  Chromatography shows what’s in the colored coating of some sweets.
  Mass spectrography is one of the most powerful ways of analyzing many kind of chemicals.
  Electrophoresis = > Separation of tagged core fragments of DNA with radioactivity.
  Sodium Carbonate is used in making glass and in caustic soda for making soap.
  Heavy Chemicals => Sodium Carbonate, Caustic Soda, Sulphuric Acid, Nitric Acid,
Ammonia, Benzene.
  Sulphuric acid is also known as ‘lifeblood of industry’
  Sulphuric acid is made from sulphur by contact process.

  Benzene is known as organic chemical.
  Oxidation -> addition of oxygen to the substance is made.
  Hydrogenation -> adding hydrogen.
  Polymerization is the reaction by which plastics are produced. It involves the linking together of small molecules (monomers) to form large ones (polymere).
  Cracking – > large molecules are broken down into small ones (used in refining petroleum).
  Halogens means salt like.
  Chlorine combines with sodium to make salt (Sodium chloride). It is one of the halogens, a group of highly reactive nonmetals that are all poisonous in their pure forms.
  Other halogens are Fluorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine.
  The halogen light bulbs used in cars headlamps have a halogen gas, usually iodine or bromine, surrounding the light filament. Halogen bulbs are brighter and last much longer than ordinary light bulbs.
  Fluoride compounds in toothpaste and drinking water help to prevent tooth decay.
  Chlorine reacts with lots of other elements to make some very useful compounds such as
PVC, a plastic for pipes and waterproof fabrics.
  CFC – Chlorofluoro carbons.
  Iodine (turns straight into a gas) (Sublimes) at room temperature.
  Chlorine is used in swimming pools to kill germs, that is why swimmers use goggles.
  Carbon has two isotopes.
  Muons are particles of atom.
  Isotopes have same chemical but different physical properties.
  Ions => In an atom, the positive electrical charges of the protons are balanced by the negative electrical charges of the electron. The atom is therefore electrically neutral. However, if you add or take away one or more electrons from an atom, it becomes either negatively or positively charged, such charged particles are called Ions.
  The purest naturally occurring crystalline form of carbon : diamond
  The mixture which can dissolve platinium : Aqua regia
  Steel is more elastic than rubber
  Marble is — rock : metaphoric
  Oil rises in a wick of oil lamp because of a property of matter, called capillary action
  Mercury metal is 13.5 times heavier than water
  Diamond is the purest naturally occurring crystalline form of : Carbon
  Caustic soda is extensively used for making : making Surf
  Charcoal Sulphur Saltpetre make what – Gunpowder
  What elements name comes from the Greek meaning lazy Argon
  What are silver coins made from-Copper Nickel
  Kallium is the old name for which element-Potassium
  Coal is formed from the remains of forests that grew in the carboniferous period about 300 million years ago.
  Half-time is a time of radioactive substance taken by that substance to decompose radioactivity to half of its weight.
  Calcium chloride is present in the common toothpastes as an abrasive.
  Copper and tin make gun-metal.
  Liquefied Petroleum Gas consists mainly of methane, butane and propane.
  Magnesium is a metal extracted from the sea water.
  Magnetite can be used for extraction of iron.
  The main constituents of Pearl are calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.
  Pollution in rivers is measured by the percentage of dissolved amount of Nitrogen.
  Uranium is called White Coal.
  Lead and tin are used in solder.

  Caffeine, a constituent of tea and coffee is a diuretic.
  Citric Acid is used in soft drinks.
  A substance which radiates light when heated to a high temperature is said to be incandescent.
  Light waves are electromagnetic.
  If a solution of pH 6 is diluted by 100 times, the resulting solution would be Acidic.
  Acid rain is caused due to emission of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.
  Hydrogen iodide is used for writing on glass.
  Infrared radiation has the longest wavelength.
  Stainless steel cooking pans are fabricated with copper bottom because conductivity of copper is greater that that of stainless steel.
  Sucrose is the sweetest natural sugar among glucose, fructose and lactose.
  Lead is used in storage batteries.
  Nobel gases are so called due to their chemical inertness.
  Alum is not present in cement.
  Due to continuous use of calcium superphosphate as fertilizer in soil, the pH of soil becomes more than 7.
  Among the fertilizers used, urea contains maximum % of N.
  Potassium magnesium sulphate is called the muraite of potash.
  Sodium acetate salt when dissolved in water makes the solution basic.
  Yellow colour of usual nitric acid is due to the presence of N2O5.
  Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element on earth.
  Nitrogen and carbon are most essential for building cells in the human body.
  Among the sedimentary rocks, limestone is of organic origin.
  Red Hematite is an ore of iron.
  Radio-carbon dating is used to find the age of fossils.
  Which of the following is used as raw material for the manufacture of rayon? Cellulose
  Saponification is the process that makes what common product: Soap
  If an alloy is an amalgam what metal must it contain-Mercury
  An example of inorganic compound is carbon monoxide.
  ATP is a molecule containing high energy bonds.
  Sand, Soda and what are the main ingredients of glass-Limestone
  Which acid dissolves glass- Hydrofluoric Acid
  What colour is iridium-Steel Grey
  What gives onions their distinctive smell- Sulphur – taken in when growing
  Longitude is measured from East to West
  Latitude is measured from North to South of Equator.
  New Zealand is close to Int: Date Line.
  Arabia is the larges peninsula.
  Antarctica is in South Pole.
  The largest latitude circle on earth is the Equator.
  Equinox (equal nights) means the equal duration of day & night.
  Lines drawn parallel to equator is latitude
  1 hour difference in local time between two places is 15 deg: Longitude
  23 degree longitude is Tropic of Cancer
  70% of earth’s surface is covered with water
  Isobar is the lines joining places of equal air pressure on a map
  Isohyets are lines joining places of equal rainfall over a period
  Isotherm are Lines of equal temperature
  Contours are places with equal altitude

  There are 36 tectonic plates
  Crust of earth is 0.5%
  Upper part of earth on which earth floats is Asthensosphere
  Earth’s speed is greatest when it is closest to the sun
  Spring tide occurs when earth, moon and sun are in straight line
  Isthmus is a narrow land strip separating two seas and connecting two land marks
  Day and night are equal on 21st March (at all parallel of latitude) and 23rd September
  Core of earth is metallic
  Temperature at earth’s core is 2000 deg: C
  Tide at its maximum height is spring tide
  International dateline lies along 180 deg: meridian
  Speed of earth rotation is highest at the north pole
  Minimum land area recommended for forest is 25%
  Earth’s total surface covered by forests is 15%
  Ordovician are the oldest rock
  Earthquake is a post volcanic activity
  Of total water on earth, fresh water reserves are 2.7%
  Highest grade of coal is Anthracite
  Coal mainly suitable for thermal power production is Bituminous
  First stage of coal formation is Peat
  Equator is called the great circle
  Mean radius of earth is 6400 km
  Total world surface area is 510 million sq: km
  soil formed by deposition of silt is Alluvial soil
  Winds blow from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
  Movement of tectonic plates may cause eruption of a volcano
  What creates new islands in the ocean? Volcanoes
  soil best suited for deep rooted crops is Black soil
  latitude of south pole is 90 deg:, latitude of equator is 0 deg:
  humidity in air is maximum in Monsoon
  earth revolves in its orbit 1 deg: per day
  1 deg: longitude on equator is equal to 112 km
  Doldrums is a belt of low atmospheric pressure on either side of Equator
  Removal of rock layer by layer due to weathering is called Exfoliation
  Rocks formed by the solidification of lava are Basalts
  Tundra region gets no rainfall throughout the year
  At equator an object weights the least.
  At 7050 km per hour, Sun rotate on its axis.
  The northern polar lights are called Aurorae Borealis, and southern polar lights are called
Aurorae Australis.
  The pulsating universe theory explains the evolution of universe.
  230 million years ago there was only one huge continent on earth. This super continent is known as Panagea, which means all lands
  In 1912 Alfred Wegener said that continents drift around on earth’s surface
  Continental drift means plate tectonics
  Rain forests grow near the equator.
  In autumn deciduous forests glow with brilliant red and gold colors as the leaves dry up and fall off the trees.
  The shape of the earth is an oblate spheroid.
  Arctic is the worlds northmost region.
  The largest latitude circle on earth is Equator.
  230 million years ago, there was only one huge continent on Earth. This super continent

is known as panagea, which means all lands.
  In 1912, a German Scientist called Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) suggested that the continent drift around on Earth’s surface.
  The latitude of a point on the Earth’s surface is the angular distance of that point measured at the centre of the Earth
  Mass of earth is 6 X 10²¹ tons
  Density of earth is 5.52.
  Chemically earth id made up of Oxygen 46.6%, Silicon 27.7%, Aluminum 8.1%, iron 5%,
Calcium 3.6%
  Earth is divided into four zones.
  Torrid zone lies b/w Tropics of Cancer & Capricorn.
  Torrid zone lies between the Tropics and is bisected by the Equator
  The North Temperate Zone lies b/w Tropic of Cancer & the Arctic Circle.
  The South Temperate Zone lies b/w Capricorn & Antarctic Circle.
  The area around north and south poles within the polar circles is called ‘the frigid zone’.
  Hot belt lies b/w latitude 0° & 3°
  Tundra region is a region of high altitude and is without trees.
  Steppes is the vast, treeless waste of Russia and part of Asia.
  Moorland is rocky surface.
  Coniferous forests extend up to 13,000 km across North America, Europe & Asia.
  Tropical or Savannah region lies b/w desert & forest. More than 1/3rd of Africa is
  Pakistan lies in Monsoon land area.
  The three abundant elements in the earth’s crust are aluminium, oxygen and silicon. The correct order of their abundance is silicon, oxygen, aluminum (8.1%)
  Inner core is made mostly of iron.
  Meridian is an imaginary circle in sky passing though celestial poles.
  Africa is the 2nd largest continent of the world.
  A wind which reverses seasonally is known as Monsoon wind.
  Temperature increases with increasing altitude by 10° C for every 250 meter rise.
  Water vapour turns into clouds in the atmosphere when Dew Point is reached.
  When a warm air is lifted off the surface in temperature depression it is called an Occlusion.
  Afternoon rains in the equatorial region are the result of convectional forces.
  Mediterranean regions are not useful for forestry.
  The best projection to suit the map of Pakistan is conventional.
  The extinct Volcano Peak of Koh-i-Sultan is in Pakistan.
  Cotopaxi: is the highest volcano in the world. It is situat¬ed in Ecuador.
  Dust Devil: is a dusty whirlwind normally a few feet in diameter and about 100 feet tall, sometimes also wider and higher.
  Earth mass: The mass of the earth is about 81 times that of the moon.
  Earth’s core: is mainly composed of iron and nickel. Lithosphere is the innermost layer of the earth.
  El Nino: is the weather phenomenon brewing in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the largest climate event of the 20th century setting off more global disasters than ever before. El Nino is warming of the waters off Equatorial South America which causes climate abnor¬malities around the world. The impact can be flooding drought in California, Brazil, Africa and Australia, severe storms in the Central Pacific and a decline in hurricanes hitting the south-eastern United States.
  Exfoliation: This type of weathering is common both in the cold as well as in the hot cli¬mate regions.
  Great Circle: A circle on the earth’s surface whose plane passes through its centre, and

bisects it into two hemispheres. Two opposing meridians together form a Great Circle. The shortest distance between any two points on the earth’s surface is the arc of the Great Circle which passes through them. 0° latitude forms a Great Circle. (The latitude or longi¬tude 75°W should be combined with 75°E to obtain the Great Circle).
  Horse Latitudes: Sub-trop¬ical belts of high atmospheric pressure over the oceans situat¬ed in both hemispheres. These are called Belts of Calm between regions of the Trade Winds and Westerlies of higher latitudes.
  Hydroponics: means culti¬vation of the plants without use of soil.
  Hyetology: is the study of rainfall.
  Kandla: is a sea port situat¬ed at the head of the Gulf of Kuch in Gujarat State.
  Lapse Rate: is the rate of change in temperature with increase of altitude.
  Laterite soils: Laterite soils are formed by the weathering of laterite rocks. These can be dis¬tinguished from other soils by their acidity.
  Loams (loamy soil): Amix¬ture of sand, clay and silt is known as loamy soil. Loams are formed where the soils have equal proportion of sand, silt and clay.
  Local winds and their areas: Khamsin—Egypt; Zonda—Argentina; Santa Ana—California; Simoon—Iran.
  Mansarover Lake: is in Tibet. Near it, the rivers having their source are the Brahamputra, the Sutlej and the Indus.
  Maoris (Tribes): are the original inhabitants of New Zealand.
  Nutrification: is the process of conversion by action of bacteria, of nitrates in the soil.
  Pangong Tso: is one of the world’s highest and brackish lakes in Jammu & Kashmir.
  Proxima Centauri: is a star nearest to the earth.
  Roaring Forties: are west¬erly winds.
  Selvas: The rain forest of Amazon basin is called Selvas. These are rainy tropical forests.
  Spring Tides: are caused when the sun and the moon are in a straight line. The tide on its maximum height is known as Spring Tide.
  Tsunamis: are huge sea waves caused by earthquakes.
  Willy Willy: is a tropical cyclone of the north-west Australia.


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