Normal temperature of body is 98.4 deg: F = 37 deg: C
  Corrine is used as paralyzing agent
  A nerve cell is called neuron. Each neuron has several inputs called dendrites and a single output called axon
  Weakest bone is clavicle bone
  Hardest bone is collar bone
  The part of small intestine that joins large intestine is colon
  Hardest part of body is tooth
  Most abundant element in human body is carbon (chk Oxygen or calcium)
  Systole is heart contraction
  Diastole is heart relaxation
  Dendrites are connected with neurons
  Epidermis = outer skin is called the True skin, it is free from blood vessels and its cells are nourished by lymph
  Muscles are held to the bones by Tendons.
  The largest part of the human brain is the Cerebrum
  Blood fails to clot in the absence of Calcium
  the two most abundant elements by mass found in Earth’s crust are Oxygen and Silicon
  Eardrum helps in keeping balance of the body
  In general, the probability of flooding decreases when there is an increase in the amount of infiltration
  Where is the ‘Atlas’ bone in the human body located? Neck
  What does intelligent people have more in their hair? zinc and copper
  Which base differentiates DNA and RNA? Uracil
  Eye is filled with ________ liquids: two
  What is the name of bones of human finger? Phalanges
  Pons varolii is found in brain
  Human brain contains 4/5th of water
  % of water in body is 70%
  Carbon in human body is 18%
  Heart is conical in shape
  Weight of heart is 9 ounces with 4 cavities
  Weight of kidney is 41/2 ounces
  Weight of brain is 1.4 kg and it consists of 14 billion nerve cells
  Right kidney is shorter and little lower than left
  Kidneys are supplied blood though renal arteries
  Liver receives blood from the alimentary canal through Heptic Portal vein
  Coronary artery supplies blood to heart
  Each kidney contains about one million nephrons
  Eye ball is moved by six muscles
  Most active muscle of human body is eye muscle
  Digestion of food takes 3 to 4 hours in stomach
  Capacity of stomach is one and a half kilo of food
  Clavicle is the collar bone
  Scapula is the shoulder bone
  Sternum is the chest bone
  There are 24 ribs
  Spinal cord has 33 disks
  Bones in hand are 27

  Ulna is the bone of forearm
  Radius is the second bone of forearm
  Carpal are 8 small bones of wrist
  Tarsal is the ankle bone
  Femur and patella (knee cap), tibia and fibula are bones of lower limbs
  Femur is the longest bone
  Head or skull has 29 bones
  Total bones are 206
  Total muscles are 600 (chk 650)
  60 thousand miles of capillaries of blood
  Chemically finger nails are made of protein
  Nails are made of a tough material called keratin
  Average body has 2 square yards of skin
  Weight of skin is 6 pounds
  Smallest bone is stirrup in the ear about 1/10th of an inch
  A newborn baby has 300 bones
  In 22 weeks baby is formed completely
  Ovum is a female germ cell
  The sensation of skin is perceived by epidermis
  Number of systems in body are of 7 types
  Man breathes 20,000 times in a day
  Root of hair is called follicle
  More than 2/3rd of body weight is made of fluids/water
  Messages sent in brain at 240 miles/hour
  Weight of eyes is 1 ½ ounces each
  There are 100,000 hairs
  Muscle of jaw exerts 219 kg weight
  Circadian rhythm is a medical term of heart beat
  Atmosphere exerts a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch on human body
  Iris of eye regulates the quantity of light admitted into the eye ball
  Outer layer of eyeball is called sclerotic
  The front portion of sclerotic is called cornea
  In eye a convex lens is placed
  Cornea is the only part of body without blood supply
  In front of eye is Cornea which bends light as it passes into the eyeball. It is covered by a thing membrane called Conjunctiva.
  Image made on ratina is upside down, but our brain turns it right.
  Behind the Cornea is a sheet of muscles called the Iris with the small hole in the middle called the pupil.
  Iris manages the amount of light entry into eye. In dark it relaxes to let pupil enter light as much as possible and in bright light it contracts.
  The muscles attached to the lens are Ciliary muscles. These muscles can contract the lens thin to see distant objects and for close objects these muscles relax.
  Retina contains cone shaped cells that can detect colors.
  Retina contains rod shaped cells that can see dim light.
  In the centre of retina is a small yellow area called the fovea where each cell has its own connection to the brain.
  Skeleton word comes from a Greek word meaning dried up.
  The defect of vision because of which a person cannot see distant objects clearly : Myopia or Short sightedness
  Where on your body are the most sweat glands-Feet
  Your eyeballs are 3.5% what-Salt

  The human bodies got 45 miles of them – what-Nerves
  Where is your zygomatic bone-Cheek
  Pancreas lies partly on the left side and partly on the right side of the body.
  Development of calf muscles in ladies who wear high heels is a common example of: Use and disuse of organ
  Cerumen is the technical name for what body part-Earwax
  Skin does not excrete oil.
  Male child is born if xy chromosomes are united.
  Liver receives blood from the alimentary canal through hepatic portal vein.
  For short-sightedness (man cannot see distant objects) a concave lens is used
  For long-sightedness (man cannot see near objects) a convex lens is used
  Concave mirrors are used as shaving mirrors, doctors use concave mirrors for the examination of ear, nose or eyes of a patient
  Concave mirrors are used to focus light in case of search lights and headlights of automobiles.
  Cerebellum co-ordinates movements, conscious control and balance, allowing you to move smoothly.
  The largest and most complicated part of brain is cerebrum. It controls conscious actions, speech and all your senses. It also does all your thinking and is the centre of memory and learning. It has two halves linked by bundles of nerve fibres. Its right side does artistic, creative tasks while the left is responsible for understanding, reading and thinking
  A reflex action is controlled by the nerves of the spinal cord without involving brain.
  Skeleton word comes from a Greek word meaning dried up
  Most abundant mineral in human body is calcium
  Strongest muscle is Thigh muscle (chk Heart muscle and cheek muscle)
  Iris in the eye contracts on the entry of light.
  Retina acts as a lens in the entry of light.
  Weight of heart is 300 gram.
  Water in human body is 85%
  A human being drinks 27 tons of water in a year
  Peritoneum is a membrane
  Unused fat in body is converted into animal fat and stored in different parts of body
  Substances which bring down body temperature are Antipyretics
  Antibodies are proteins
  Most easily breakable bone of body is Collar bone
  There is 21/2 pounds of calcium in human body
  A human body has 236 joints
  Dental enamel is the hardest thing present in human body
  A man breathes 18 times in a minute
  A 9 inch nail can be made from the iron available in a body
  Average weight of man’s brain is 4.8 ounces and femal’s 4.4 ounces
  About 900 pencils can be made from the carbon preserved in human body
  Skin does not excrete oil.
  New varieties of organisms can be brought about by hybridization.
  Male child is born if xy chromosomes are united.
  Total teeth = 32, eight flat incisors at the front, fount pointed canine and 20 flat-topped pre-molars and molars at the back of the mouth.
  Tooth is covered by tough white enamel
  Enamel is the hardest substance in the body and resists almost everything except the acid produced by certain bacteria
  Liver is the body’s chemical factory.
  Liver is the largest organ in the body.

  Liver carries out more than 500 different tasks.
  Liver recycles old red blood cells.
  Liver takes up and stores glucose from blood.
  Liver also absorbs and stores fat and some vitamins.
  Liver uses vitamin B12 for making new red blood cells.
  Nearly two third of our body is water.
  We loose about a liter and a half of water each day in sweating, breathing and urination.
  Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny filtering units called Nephrons.
  The nephrons can filter about 4 liters of blood every 5 minutes.
  Each day about 200 liters of water leaves the blood and passes into the filters most of it is then reclaimed and return to the blood.
  Only about a liter of water per day stays in the nephrons to leave the kidney and flow into the bladder as urine.
  Urea is poisonous so the kidneys remove all of it from the blood.
  The liquid which leaves the kidney as urine is about 96% water and just 4% salts and urea.
  The urinary bladder can hold about half a liter of urine before we must empty it.
  Amniotic sac is a protective bag of fluid in which the baby floats.
  A baby is attached to the side of the womb by placenta.
  Homo erectus means upright man
  Homo sapiens mean wise man
  Cells in intestine are easily worn away and live for only a few days.
  Bone cells can last for 30 years.
  The left ventricle pumps blood all round the body.
  Capillaries are so small that they can fit between cells.
  A living bone has layers of hard calcium phosphate on the outside and a heycomb of hard bone of living cells inside
  Bone marrow supply blood cells over 2 millin every second
  In the inner chamber of ear called cochlea, the vibrations send waves of movement through a fluid.
  The cochlea is liked with thousands of sensitive hairs.
  Thumping of heart or break out of sweat are caused by adrenaline.
  From the age of about 5 years a child’s body grows steadily
  Protein is a natural polymer
  Muscles along the digestive system contract in a sequence called peristalsis to squeeze food along
  Nutrients of food are absorbed in blood in a long section of intestine called ileum. If uncoiled, ileum is 5-6 meters long
  Eye contains only three types of color-sensitive cells. These cells (called cones) are on retina. The cones respond to red, green and blue light. Brain makes out other colors by combining the signals from these cells.
  Ophthalmology deals with Eyes
  ORBIS is mobile eye hospital
  Synovial fluid is the “joint oil” between bones
  The smallest bone in human body is stapes or stirrup bone. It is one of the three auditory ossicles in the middle ear. Its length is 0.10 to 0.13 inch.
  Your tongue is the only muscle in your body that is attached at only one end
  You use 14 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
  A living bone has layers of hard calcium, phosphate on the outside and a honeycomb of hard bone are living cells within.
  Every second, hundreds of tiny pulses of electricity shoot through your body along living wires called nerves.

  There is a place in the retina where the light sensitive cells are interrupted by the presence of the optic nerve head. It is known as The Retinal Neural Transmission Layer_
  The cavity of Ascaris is known as Coelom.
  The membranous labyrinth of the ear is filled with Endolymph.
  Crura-cerebri is found in Mid-brain.
  The strongest muscle of the body is the masseter muscle, which is located in the jaw. (Chk)
  Muscles account for 40 percent of one’s body weight.
  There are 230 joints in the body.
  Kids have 20 first teeth. Adults have 32 teeth.
  The small intestines are about 25 feet long.
  The large intestines are five feet long and are three times wider than the small intestines.
  Most people shed 40 pounds of skin in a lifetime.
  Your body is 70 percent water.
  Normal body temperature is 98.6° Fahrenheit.
  When you sneeze, air rushes through your nose at a rate of 100 mph.
  An eyelash lives about 150 days before it falls out.
  Your brain sends messages at the rate of 240 mph.
  About 400 gallons of blood flow through your kidneys in one day.
  You blink your eyes about 20,000 times a day.
  Your heart beats about 100,000 times a day.
  Humans breathe 20 times per minute, more than 10 million times per year and about 700 million times in a lifetime.
  You have about 100,000 hairs on your head.
  There are 10 million nerve cells in your brain.
  Each of your eyes has 120 million rods, which help you see in black and white.
  Each eye has six million cones, which help you see in color.
  One in 12 men is color blind.
  Brain of a normal human adult weighs about 3lb
  For an adult blood pressure of 120/80 is regarded as ideal and pressure of up to 140/90 is normal.
  Iris in the eye contracts on the entry of light.
  Retina acts as a lens in the entry of light.
  In your body where is the macula- Eye centre of the Retina
  Weight of heart is 300 gram.
  Heart pumps five liters of blood in 1 minute.
  Colon is mainly responsible for water absorption from the undigested residue.
  Right kidney in man is slightly lower in position than the left kidney
  The movement of food through esophagus is by the muscular action known as : peristaltic
  In the human body what is replaced every three months Eyelashes
  Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing
  The thickness of your skin varies from 1/2 to 6 millimeters, depending on the area of your body
  the temperature of the dead human body on Celsius scale is __25 c_ normally room temperature
  Where in your body is the labyrinth- Ear
  What does a hypodermic literally mean-Under skin
  In the body where would you find your villus Small Intestine
  Where is the dirtiest skin on your body- The face
  the number of the spinal nerves in the man is ____ pairs (31)
  Part of the human body can expand 20 times its normal size: Stomach 0.5 litres to 5

  In the human body where is your occiput: Back of head
  Central nervous system controls the reflex action in the body.
  The terminal part of vertebral column in man is called Coceyx
  The “Urinary system” of the body consists of 3 organs.
  Haryersion canals are present in Bone.
  The heart bear is initiated and regulated by nodal tissue made of specialized cardiac muscles called Purkinje tusse.
  The gestation period of human being is Nine months.
  The first heart sound is produced when Diastole begins.
  Where would you find Lunate Triquetral and Hamate-Bones in Wrist
  Which part of the human body contains the most gold: Toenails
  In the body luteinizing hormone is produced by what gland Pituitary
  Due to buffer system, human blood has a ph of 7.4.
  The normal temperature of human body is 98.6 F.
  chemical elements most % human body O 65% C 18% and Hydrogen 10%
  Cell membrane is made up of protein and lipid molecules forming a semi permeable membrane.
  Carbohydrates in the cell are in from of glycogen.
  An epithelium is a collection of cells.
  Exoskeleton lies external to the muscles.
  Exoskeleton is commonly found in anthropoids and mollusk.
  Exoskeleton is composed of dead substances secreted by the cells.
  Endoskeleton lies internal to muscles of the body. It is found in all vertebrates. It is formed of bones and cartilages.
  Endoskeleton is composed of living cells.
  Ear has 6 bones- Malleus bone (2), Incus bone (2) & stapes (2).
  Human skull has 22 bones.
  There are 26 vertebrae in the human body.
  Total number of ribs are 24- True Ribs (14), False Ribs (6) and floating ribs (4)
  Sternum is that bone where the ribs meet medially.
  Collar bone are 2, Shoulder bone are 2.
  Carpal bones are those bones which form the wrist numbering 8.
  Small forearm bone is radius and main forearm bone is Ulna. Humerus is upper arm bone.
  Metacarpal bones are found in hand numbering 5.
  Phalanges are small bones present in fingers also called digits. These are 14 in number.
  Each leg is composed of 29 bones.
  Tarsal bone is also known as the ankle bone. These are seven in number.
  Phalanges are toe bones numbering 14.
  Vertebrae are 33 in number. Vertebral column covers spinal cord and protects it from injury.
  Clavicle bones are also known as collar bones. These are two bones.
  Scapula are called shoulder bones.
  Sternum is called chest bone.
  Patella acts like a knee-cap and protects the knee joint.
  Tibia is the main large bone of the lower leg also known as calf-bone.
  Fibula is the smaller part of lower leg.
  Femur bears the weight of the body. It is in upper leg.
  Muscles are composed of threadlike protein structure called myofibril.
  The cardiac muscle continues to contract rhythmically even when it is disconnected from the nervous system.

  Trapizius muscle is responsible for movement of shoulder.
  Sternocleidomastoid muscle is the longest muscle of the body. It bends head and neck.
  Brachialis anticus muscle is responsible for bending forearm to the upper arm.
  Heart is enclosed in a tough membrane called Pericardium.
  There are four chambers of heart.
  Heart is surrounded by a fluid called as pericardial fluid.
  The weight of the heart in females is 25% lesser than in males.
  Excitability and contractility of the heart id due to the presence of myofibrils of actin and myosin.
  Purkinjee fibres are tissues of heart.
  S.A Node and A.V Node are special conducting tissues of the heart.
  S.A. Node was discovered by Keith and Flack in 1907.
  A.V Node functions as Pace-maker.
  Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from body collected by Superior Vena Cava from head and upper parts while from the lower parts by inferior vena cava.
  Right atrium opens into right ventricle through right atrioventricular aperture guarded by bicuspid valve allowing one way flow of blood.
  When right ventricle contracts, the blood is pushed by the way of pulmonary arteries to the lungs for oxygenation.
  The left atrium is that chamber which receives the oxygenated blood from lungs by pulmonary veins.
  Left atrium opens into left ventricle from there blood is pumped into aorta which distributes blood to body.
  Cardiac cycle consists of three events- Auricular Systole, Ventricular Systole and Diastole.
  Each cardiac cycle takes 0.8 seconds.
  Aorta is the largest vessel of the body.
  The biggest artery is aorta with a diameter of one inch.
  Arteries carry blood away from the heart except pulmonary arteries.
  Arteries carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries.
  The smallest artery is called arteriole.
  The walls of veins are much thinner that the arteries.
  Coronary arteries supply blood to heart.
  Carotid arteries supply blood to head.
  Subclavian arteries supply blood to shoulder and forelimbs.
  Coelic artery supplies blood to digestive system.
  Renal artery supplies blood to kidneys.
  Iliac artery supplies blood to legs.
  The most important function of perspiration is to regulate the body temperature.
  The number of chromosomes in the human body is 46.
  First tissue culture was grown in space on Dec: 17, 1997.
  The tiny air sacs in the lung tissues are called alveoli.
  Farmer’s lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  Otalgia is what condition-Earache
  Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans.
  Scorbutic gums, a symptom of scurvy
  Scurvy leads to the formation of spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from the mucous membranes. The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth. It was described by Hippocrates
  Shortsightedness can be corrected with the use of Concave.

  Pancreas lies partly on the left side and partly on the right side of the body.
  In total 25 elements are present in human body.
  Universal donor group is O group
  Total volume of blood in human body is 5.5 liters (chk 6 liters)
  Life span of red blood cells is 120 days
  Life of RBC is 115 days.
  The total quantity of blood in a human body is 7-8 liter.
  80 % water is found in pure blood
  The pH of normal human body is Arteries 7.4
  60% of blood plasma consists of protein.
  Which one of the following substances is obtained by the fractionation of human blood? Gamma globulin
  In the human circulatory system blood returns to the heart from the lungs through
Pulmonary Veins.
  First blood transfusion carried out in London
  pH value of water is 7, blood is 7.4 and urine is 5.5-6.5
  when iron is less in body the quantity of RBC decreases
  Leococytosis is the increase in number of white blood cells.
  it takes 30 seconds to blood for a complete circulation in human body
  Blood travels 1000 times through the whole body
  Hemoglobin is chromo-protein
  In lymph main cells are lymphocytes
  Blood has 83% of water
  Blood has 60% plasma, 40% corpuscles
  During sleep a man’s blood pressure fluctuates.
  Fat is a Lipid
  Human blood is 6 times thicker than water
  Heart pumps five liters of blood in 1 minute.
  Antigen is a substance that destroys harmful bacteria
  Blood typing is the way of determine the blood group.
  Platelets help to seal cuts in the skin.
  Almost half of the blood in a body is made up of red blood cells.
  White cells are about one for every 500 red cells.
  A blood donor gives about 500 ml of blood.
  RBC and WBC is bloods are counted by Hemocytometer.
  Of the blood groups A, B, AB and O, which one is transfused into a person whose blood group is A? Group A and O
  Your body contains eight pints of blood.
  Kari Landsteiner discovered the blood groups of man.
  Prothrombin which helps in clotting of blood is released by Blood platelets.
  The main function of white blood cells in the body is to protect the body against diseases.
  In which liquid component do the blood cells move about? Plasma
  Blood can be classified into how many main types of groups? Four
  The fluid portion of blood is known as the plasma.
  Blood contains 91 to 92% waster.
  Blood contains proteins like Serum Albumin, Serum Globulin, Prothrombin and Fibrinogen.
  RBCs in venous blood have bigger size than in arterial blood.
  RBCs due to their Hb content act as O2 carrier.
  RBCs are also known as Erythrocytes.
  WBCs are known as Leucocytes and act as police force of the body.

  WBCs are larger in size as compared to RBCs.
  Life span of WBCs is a few days to a few weeks.
  Platelets have no nucleus.
  Platelets are formed in red bone marrow.
  Life span of platelets varies from 4 to 10 days.
  Platelets are very rich in catecholamine.
  Blood grouping is based on the presence of blood group antigen (agglutinates) on RBCs which are inherited.
  O group comprises of 47% of population while A with 41% is second.
  Hemoglobin is a conjugated protein composed of heme and globulin.
  Quantity of hemoglobin is 16 gms/100 ml of blood in Males and 14 gms/100 ml of blood in females.
  Hemoglobin is basically from acetic acid and glycine.
  Platelets are essential for blood clotting.
  Blood clotting factor is produced by Liver
  Chemical factory of human body is liver
  Urea is produces in liver
  Maximum quantity of water is in eyes
  Largest secretary gland is Liver
  Insulin is produced by pancreas, Insulin is a protein which acts as a hormone
  Amino acids are a product of the digestion of proteins.
  Ptyalin is starch digesting enzyme.
  Bile secretion does not contain enzymes.
  Pepsin, a digestive enzyme is produced in stomach.
  The hormone secreted by adrenal cortex : aldosterone
  The organ in (the human body which is responsible for the digestion of protein only – Stomach
  Ptyalin is present in the saliva.
  Glycogen is mainly stored in Liver and muscles.
  Pepsin converts protein into peptides in acid media.
  Trypsin is an enzyme produced by pancreas
  Starch is digested by Ptylin
  Gall bladder stores bile from liver and releases it into small intestine after food is consumed
  Pancreas is both endo- and exocrine gland
  Harmones secreted by kidneys are Renin and Erythroprotein
  Lachrymal glands give out tears
  Sweat glands give out sweat
  Salivary glands give out saliva, Saliva contains Amylases
  Ptyalin is the enzyme of Saliva
  Liver converts excessive protein into urea.
  Amino acids are a product of the digestion of proteins.
  Ptyalin is starch digesting enzyme.
  Bile secretion does not contain enzymes.
  Enzymes found in saliva are ptyalin.
  Lachrymal gland is a ductless gland.
  Insulin : Pancreas
  Thyroxin : Thyroid
  Adrenaline ; Adrenal medulla
  Estrogen : Ovaries

  Testosterone : Testes
  Cortisol; Adrenal cortex
  In the body luteinizing hormone is produced by what gland Pituitary
  Mammary gland give out milk
  Liver gives out bile
  Sebaceous gland give out sebum
  Exocrine glands transmit secretions through ducts
  Enzymes are protein in nature
  Hydrolysis of starch gives glucose and fructose
  Fat digested by Lipase
  Starch is a polymer of glucose
  Endocrine glands: Pituitary is in brain and it controls general body growth.
  Thyroid gland produces Thyroxin and it increases rate of cellular metabolism,
  Pancreas produce insulin which metabolizes sugar and fats
  Adrenal gland produce cartosol, Testosterone is produced by Tests and ovaries produce
  Pituitary: Controls activity of thyroid, adrenal and reproductive glands. Other hormones stimulate the womb to contract during birth, and stimulate milk production after a baby is born.
  Thyroid: Thyroxin controls the rate at which we grow, and how fast food is converted to energy in our cells.
  Adrenal Glands: Adrenaline speeds up the heart and breathing, causes sweating and diverts blood to the muscles, in response to an emergency.
  Cortisone helps fight stress and shock.
  Aldosterone helps regulate water and salt in the body.
  Pancreas: Insulin controls the body’s use of glucose.
  Ovaries: Estrogens and progesterone control female appearance and the release of eggs, and prepare the body for pregnancy.
  Testes: Testosterone controls the development of male appearance and the production of sperm cells.
  Protein which acts as hormone is Oxatocin
  Hormones are made in glands known as endocrine glands which pour them straight into the blood. Hormones are not released all the time they are produced in short bursts.
  Pituitary gland attached to the underside of brain releases hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands. It produces hormone that controls the amount of water filtered in the kidneys. Pituitary is attached to the brain by the hypothalamus which links together the nervous system and the hormonal system
  Excessive secretion from the pituitary gland in children results in increased height


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